Full Submission Guidelines for Manuscripts for the Professional Agricultural Workers Journal (PAWJ)

General Directions and Format

Please submit your manuscript electronically using 1-inch margins, font size 12, Times New Roman font in Microsoft Word, and unjustify the right margin.

A. Regular Oral Presentations (from the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference [PAWC] or related conferences

The following format must be utilized: title page, abstract, text, endnotes, appendix, and references. Your entire paper should not exceed 15 pages (does not include the title page, but includes abstract, text, appendices, references, and tables/figures) for concurrent presentations/regular presentations.
Exceptions will be made in special cases. Page numbers should be bottom-centered.

Author Information/Review Process

The journal uses a blind review process, and therefore, names and other information of authors should be restricted to the title page. Also, avoid providing other compromising identifiers in the text.

Title Page

The title page should include the following information: title of the manuscript; authors’ names, and affiliations, and should indicate the contact author. Note, that the title should be no more than 20 words.


The title of the manuscript and a 150-word abstract (single-spaced, 12-point font size) should be included. The abstract should cover what the study is about, key methodology, key results, and key conclusion. Immediately below the abstract place two to five keywords, separated by commas
Note: Do not put citations or sub-headings in the abstract. Place your abstract on page 1 above or before the Introduction.


The text should be single-spaced using 1-inch margins and font size 12, Times New Roman font, beginning on page 1 and ending on page 15 (all-inclusive; meaning includes appendices, references, and tables/figures).

Main headings should be centered, and bold, and only the initial letters should be capitalized. Secondary headings should be set flush with the left margin in bold with initial letters capitalized and should not be underlined. Tertiary headings should be set flush with the left margin, bold and italicized, with initial letters capitalized, and should not be underlined. Note: (1) One- or two-sentence paragraphs are unacceptable; (2) Use % instead of percent within the text; (3) Allow only one space after a period (.); (4) Avoid using pronouns, “I”; “we”; “our”; for example, instead of saying, “We hypothesized that...”, say “It was hypothesized that…”; and (5) Use block paragraphs RATHER THAN indented paragraphs.

Equations should be numbered consecutively, and a standard typeface should be used for mathematical notations to the extent possible. As much as possible minimize mathematical notations in the text. Extensive mathematical formulae should be placed in an appendix.

The recommended sections in the text are the following: Introduction (including problem definition, purpose, and objectives); Literature Review (or equivalent); Methodology (or Methods and Procedures or Materials and Methods); Results and Discussion (or Results separate from Discussion), and Conclusion (i.e., a summary of major findings, implications, and/or recommendations). Important Note: Literature Review is required for all academic-type manuscripts. Discuss relevant literature in the Literature Review section, and the literature used for the discussion (under the Results and Discussion/Discussion section) must first be mentioned in the Literature Review section.

Citations within Text

All references must be cited within the text. This can be done in several ways, for example, (1) in parenthesis, place the author’s last name followed by a comma and publication year; (2) put the author’s last name followed by the year in parentheses; (3) when you quote directly, place in parenthesis, the author’s last name followed by a comma and publication year, and then place another comma and page number(s) OR place the author’s last name outside the parenthesis and place the year followed by a comma as well as the page number in parenthesis. Quotation marks should be used for short quotes. For long quotes, authors should indent quotes and use a single space.

Depending on the citation, the citation should appear as: “Mills (2004) reported that…” or “Analysis on sampling has been extensively discussed in the literature (Williams, 2003)” or “Johnson (1999, p. 13) states …” or “IPM is not extensively practiced by SLRFs in Alabama” (Tackie et al., 2009, p. 6) or “In Johnson v. Johnson (2015)…” or “In the Affordable Care Act (2009)...”
Place a series of citations in alphabetical order, separately by semicolons in parenthesis, for example, (Feng, 1997; Gwartney and Lawson, 2003; Hanke and Walters, 1997; Iyoha and Oriakhi, 2002).

For the works of two authors, cite both authors’ last names. For works of three or more authors use the first author’s last name followed by “et al.”

If an author has two or more works in the same year, identify them by attaching letters of the alphabet, for example, Jones (2004a); Jones (2004b); Jones (2004c).

If an author has two or more works in different years, mention or reference the most recent work first, for example, Williams (2008); Williams (2004).


Authors should avoid footnotes in the text but may use Endnotes at the end of the text.


Endnotes should be placed at the end of the text and before the appendix (single-spaced) and numbered consecutively. It is better to minimize the use of endnotes as integrating them into the text makes easier reading.


The appendix should be placed after the endnotes before the references (single-spaced). It is advisable to sparingly use appendices.


References should be placed after the appendices (single-spaced). References should be listed alphabetically by the last name of the author and the author’s first and middle initials. If there are two or more authors the second and subsequent authors should have their first and middle initials come first, then their last names. Also, if there are several works by the same author(s), list the most recent work first.

Please do not use abbreviations in the References, for example, et al., or abbreviated journal titles. For journals: include volume, issue number, and page numbers.

The first line of each reference should be flushed to the left margin and the subsequent lines should be indented.

The authors should make sure that there is a one-to-one correspondence between the citations (names and years) in the text and those in the References.


Tables should be placed in the text single-spaced. A smaller font size (not below 10-point) is allowed for tables. Please keep tables simple. Do not “box” tables. The table title should be at the top of the Table. Use horizontal-line tables, preferably three lines with 1-inch margins. Avoid vertical-line tables or a mixture of horizontal and vertical-line tables. Table orientation should be vertical (i.e., portrait). Avoid horizontally oriented (i.e., landscape) tables.

For Table titles, capitalize initial letters except for conjunctions (and similar words).
For statistical analysis, denoting significance or otherwise, use * to denote significance at the 10% level;
** to denote significance at the 5% level; and *** to denote significance at the 1% level. Alternatively, you may use expressions such as p<0.05, p<0.01, or p>0.05.


Figures should be placed in the text exactly where they should appear. Computer-generated figures are preferred. Figure titles Should Not be placed within the graphic but outside it and below the figure.
Please avoid complex graphicsFigure titles should be at the bottom of the Figure. For Figure titles,
capitalize initial letters except for conjunctions (and similar words).

***Below is a set of general guidelines for References***

Kohls, R.L., and J.N. Uhl. (2002). Marketing of Agricultural Products, 9th ed. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.

Chapter/Article in Book or Proceedings with a Title or Theme (e.g., Professional Agricultural Workers Conference):
Tackie, N.O., A. Siaway, and N. Baharanyi. (2003). “Land Tenure, Agriculture, and Economic Development.” In E. Nnadozie (ed.), African Economic Development. San Diego, California: Academic Press.

Dansby, M., and A. Bovell-Benjamin. (2002). “Evaluation of Hydroponic Sweetpotato Flour During Extended Storage.” In N. Baharanyi, R. Zabawa, and W. Hill (eds.), Land, Community, and Culture: African American and Hispanic American/Latino Connections. Tuskegee, Alabama: Tuskegee University.

Robinson, K.L., and R.D. Christy. (2001). “The Civic Community Approach: Policy Implications for the South.” In R. Zabawa, N. Baharanyi, and W. Hill (eds.), Land, Community, and Culture: African American, Native American and Native Alaskan Connections. Tuskegee, Alabama: Tuskegee University.

Edited Book (citing entire book and editors and not individual authors):
Boko, S.H., M. Baliamoune-Lutz, and S.R. Sitawa, eds. (2005). Women in African Development: The Challenge of Globalization and Liberalization in the 21st Century. Trenton, New Jersey: African World Press.

Zabawa, R., T.M. Hargrove, N.O. Tackie, and W.A. Hill, eds. (2011). The Color of Wealth in the Green Economy: Best Practices, Programs, and Policies. Tuskegee, Alabama: Tuskegee University.

Journal Article:
Zekeri, A. (2019). “Toward Effective Rural Community in Black Belt Counties: Conceptual and Methodological Issues.” Professional Agricultural Workers Journal 7 (1): 22-30.

Munasib, A.B.A, and J.L. Jordan. (2011). “The Effect of Social Capital on the Choice to Use Sustainable Agricultural Practices.” Journal of Agricultural and Applied Economics 43 (2): 213-227.

Wiley, Z.Z., and L. Hobbs, L. Jr., (2021). “An Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Project Impact: Multicultural Academic Programs Success at Kansas State University.” Professional Agricultural Workers Journal 7 (1): 22-30.

Working Papers, Reports, Bulletins, and Fact Sheets:
Kurbrin, C.E., G.D. Squires, and S.M. Graves. (2009). Does Fringe Banking Exacerbate Neighborhood Crime Rates? Social Disorganization and the Ecology of Payday Lending. Working Paper, Department of Sociology, George Washington University, Washington, DC.

Tackie, N.O. (2005). Record-Keeping for Very Small Business Owners and Limited Resource Farmers. Publication No. TUCED-0805-01, Cooperative Extension Program, Tuskegee University, Tuskegee, Alabama.

Mukhoti, B. (1987). “The International Monetary Fund and Low-Income Countries.” Foreign Agricultural Economic Report No. 224, USDA-Economic Research Service. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Service.

Paper Presented at a Conference (Not Published):
Coneva, E. (2022). “Assessing New Rabbiteye Cultivars for Central Alabama.” Paper Presented at the 80th Annual Professional Agricultural Workers Conference, Montgomery, Alabama.

Hawkins, C. (2018). “Understanding Food Systems in Mississippi: An Examination of the Prevalence of Food Insecurity.” Paper Presented at the 76th Annual Professional Agricultural Workers Conference, Opelika, Alabama.

Kone-Coulibaly, S., M. Egnin, and G. He. (2003). “Expression Profiling of Differentially Expressed Genes in Yam (Dioscorea rotundata) During Post-Harvest Storage.” Paper Presented at the 61st Annual Professional Agricultural Workers Conference, Tuskegee, Alabama.

Nelson, M.C., A. Jakes, J. Whitehead, and E. Knight. (2003). “Production Management Systems and Goat Meat Attributes: Do They Matter?” Paper Presented at the 61st Annual Professional Agricultural Workers Conference, Tuskegee, Alabama.

Sullivan, P.W. (2007). “Rising Gas Prices Alter Auto Buying.” Montgomery Advertiser, Montgomery, Alabama, May 29, p. 5A.

Thesis and Dissertation:
Percival, A. (2002). “Economic Characteristics of the Meat Goat Industry in the Southeastern United States.” M.S. Thesis, Department of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences, Tuskegee
University, Tuskegee, Alabama.

Rajaonarivany, N. (1996). “The Examination of the Impact of IMF-Supported Programs on the Economic Performance of Low-Income Countries: The Case of Madagascar.” Ph.D. Dissertation, Department of Political Science, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama.

Internet/Online Citations:
Online Journal Article:

Weerts, D.J. (2005). “Validating Institutional Commitment to Outreach at Land-Grant Universities: Listening to the Voices of Community Partners.” Journal of Extension 43 (5). http://www.joe.org/joe/2005october/index.shmtl [Retrieved November 19, 2005].
Note: An author may also use the regular Journal format above.

Online Nonjournal Document:
U.S. Department of Energy, Energy Information Administration. (2004). “Crude Oil Prices. ”http://www.eia.doe.gov/pub/international/iealf/BPCrudeOilPrices.xls [Retrieved May 24, 2005].

Personal Communication:
Smith, J. (2013). “The Pattern of the Small Farmer.” Personal Communication, June 23, Selma, Alabama.


Court Cases:
Entity v. Entity. (Year). Volume, Source.

Name of Act. (Year). Source, Section, Number.

***Note: Where a name of a state appears in the References spell it out; for example, for Alabama, use “Alabama” and not “AL.”

B. Concurrent Workshops (conducted at the PAWC or related workshops)

Concurrent workshop presentations should be summarized and submitted electronically. Depending on the nature of the workshop, the format may be as in “A” above or in a general format. The length of the workshop paper should not exceed 15 pages.

C. Success Stories (presented at the PAWC)

Success story presentations should be summarized and submitted electronically. Depending on the nature of the success story, the format may be as in “A” above or in a general format. The length of the success story should not exceed 15 pages.
***Note: If B and C are not presented as “A” above, then the manuscript will be classified as a special manuscript by the editors.

D. Poster Presentations

Poster presenters who want their poster presentations to be published in the journal should follow the format described in “A” above.

E. Plenary Presentations, Panel Discussions, Breakout Special Sessions, etc.

Plenary presentations, panel discussions, breakout special sessions, etc. should be summarized and submitted electronically in a general format.

Submission of Manuscript

Authors should submit their manuscripts to pawjournal@tuskegee.edu
The journal can be accessed at https://tuspubs.tuskegee.edu/pawj

Additional Note: (1) Concurrent workshops, success stories, poster presentations, plenary sessions, etc., refer to other sessions at the Professional Agricultural Workers Conference; (2) General format means, Introduction, Main Body (divided into subsections according to the nature of the subject matter), and Conclusion.

Special Note to All Authors

(1) Follow the above guidelines closely
(2) Avoid arguing with the Reviewers and/or Editors
(3) The Editors are not responsible for preparing authors’ tables and figures or writing their manuscripts
(4) Authors are not to use special graphics, making it difficult to edit tables or figures
(5) Manuscripts/Papers which do not follow the above guidelines will be rejected